Abrash variations in color found within a field of color in an area rug. It is a natural effect of
hand-weaving, and is sometimes an intentional attempt by the weaver to add interest to
monotonous open-field backgrounds, it is generally seen as a desirable feature of tribal rugs.
Man-made fiber used as a less expensive alternative to wool.
A neoclassical style, common motifs include oval and octagonal shapes.
Some rugs copied the ceilings of the rooms for which they were commissioned in England.
The main colors used in these designs were gray, light blue and jasper.
The Persian name for the all-over layout. Afshan means scattered
The age specifies how old a rug is. There are three major timelines, Contemporary,
Semi-Antique and Antique.
A rug layout with no dominant or central design. The motifs on the rug are spread
throughout the rug.
The first synthetic dyes used in dyeing pile materials for rugs. The first aniline dye
was developed in the 1850s. These dyes faded rapidly with exposure to light and water,
hence they were replaced with Chrome synthetic dyes in all countries
Rugs over 60 years old
A chemical wash that imitates an antique look.
Rug treatment that diminishes the effects of static electricity build-up.
Intricate patterns of intertwining branches, flowers, leaves and vines. These could be
woven in geometric or curvilinear patterns.
A style of interior design (and architecture) popular in 1925-1940, characterized
by geometrical designs and bold colors.
A late 19th and early 20th century style of art, architecture, and decoration characterized
by the representation of leaves and flowers with flowing lines.
Artificial silk yarn for weaving that is made from cotton, rayon or polyester that resembles
silk. It is soft to the touch and more affordable than the expensive silk originals.
A type of Oriental pile rug knot where only one of the two warps are entirely encircled.
The asymmetrical (also known as Persian or Senneh Knot) is used in Iran, India, Turkey,
Egypt and China. To form this knot, yarn is wrapped around one warp strand and then
passed under the neighboring warp strand and brought back to the surface. With this type
of knot a finer weave can be created.
Style of rug that originated in France in the 15th century. Aubusson evolved into several main
styles over the course of the next four centuries, including popular Antoinette, Josephine and
Maison patterns. Aubusson were originally flat-weave rugs, usually featuring a floral medallion
and pastel colors, but today these rug patterns have been adapted for pile rugs.
Rugs manufactured by a particular style of loom and weaving that originated in the town of
Axminster, England during the industrial revolution. The Axminster loom offers great flexibility
of color, enabling use of up to 70 colors, and design. These machine-made rugs are woven
onto a flexible cotton frame, the pile is then cut level to one height and the pile tufts are
anchored by strong wefts. Axminster rugs combine many colors in geometric or floral patterns.
The dominant color in the background of the rug. The most widely used background colors
are red, blue, beige, and yellow. These colors range in all shades and hues.
Bamboo rugs or mats are woven from natural bamboo fibers. Bamboo is cut into strands for
woven designs and into wide strips for a hardwood floor effect.
Term popularly used to refer to a natural colored look of carpeting. Berber is more accurately
or traditionally defined as a group of North African tribes people who crafted rugs of handspun
yarn from the un-dyed wool of local sheep.
Carpets composed of more than one kind of fiber.
The dominant color in the border of the rug. Major border colors are red, blue, beige, yellow
and green. These colors range in all shades and hues.
Heavy looped pile.
The original version of paisley, this motif is thought to represent the forms of pine cones,
cypress trees or the flame of Zoroaster. Boteh is a very popular motif in many types of
traditional Oriental rugs.
Rugs made from braided yarn, often made of 'rag' or muti-colored fabric swatches,
that are then sewn into concentric circles or ovals.
The reddish wood of certain tropical trees or shrubs in the pea family, especially a
Brazillian tree whose wood is a source of red, purple and black dye used in early Chinese rugs.
Uzbekistan's capitol and a major trading center for tribal Turkish rugs. Turkoman
rugs are commonly referred to as Bukharas, however contemporary rugs that are identified
as Bukhara are often made in Pakistan. Bukhara rugs typically feature rows of repeating
motifs or guls.
Process of arranging and smoothing wool fibers by pulling them between two spiked paddles.
Diagram used as a template for rug design when knotting an oriental rug. These diagrams
are especially useful for rugs made by groups of weavers, such as village rugs.
Design element that contains a date or inscription
A spiny Asian tree also called Betel Palm with spikes of yellow flowers, dark heartwood.
Tannins and brown dyes are derived from the heartwood of this plant. Catechu dye was used
in rugs of India
The different settings in which handmade rugs are produced. Handmade rugs are generally
woven in the settings of Nomadic, Village, Workshop, or Master workshop.
Fabric with a deep luxurious pile that is often used in rugs.
Colorfast dyes that use potassium bichromate to bond the yarn to the dye.
Ornate court carpets that were originally designed before the turn of the 19th century
Originally a Chinese design, this pattern resembles a swirling band of clouds. Cloudbands
also appear frequently in Persian rug designs.
Coat of Arms
A design on a shield that signifies a particular family, university or city.
In creating a handmade rug, one of the most important elements is color. Colors can be
derived from natural dyes or made from synthetic dyes. All handmade rugs are identified by
their background and border colors.
In the East colors have symbolic values. These traditional and religious meanings of colors
sometimes affect the choice of colors used in handmade rugs.
Process that organizes carded wool fibers in a parallel arrangement by pulling them
spiked blocks or combs. This process prepares wool for spinning.
This attribute specifies the condition of a rug from a quality point of view. The specific
conditions in the handmade rug industry are Fine, Average and Worn.
Non-traditional styles of rugs that range from shag and braided rugs to pile-weave rugs with
geometric or modern patterns. Also used to describe rugs less than 25 years old.
Soft and fluffy fiber produced by the cotton plant. Fibers are formed within a cotton boll or
seedpod. The fibers can be spun and are used in rugs for backing, fringes and sometimes
mercerized cotton is used for pile.
Rugs made from the highest quality of cow hides and select chromiun tanned cow hides.
Available in a variety of colors and patterns. Sizes will vary.
Cross-woven rugs are made on the Wilton loom. This technique incorporates fringes into the
rug rather than requiring them to be sewn on afterwards. Cross-weaving is done from side to side, rather than top to bottom, which allows the use of more colors in addition to delicate details and an elegant abrash look.
Patterns created with smooth curving lines
Cut-pile is a smooth finish created by cutting off the tops of the wool loops. The cut loops are
then twisted to make tufts of yarn that stand erect, creating a soft even surface. Also known as
'velour' or 'velvet' pile
Measurement of linear density (mass in grams of 9000 meters of the measured yarn or fiber).
Large fibers or yarns have high deniers, thin yarns have low deniers.
Refers to the amount of pile yarn in the carpet and the closeness of the tufts. The more
densely or tightly packed the yarn is, the more luxurious the pile will feel.
Inexpensive flat-woven rugs from India, usually made of wool or cotton. Type of Kilim.
Dyes are used in coloring pile materials such as wool, silk and cotton. There are two types
of dyes: Natural Dyes and Synthtic Dyes.
Carved pile around a design or motif that augments the look of the pattern
Needle-work embellishments that decorate a fabric or textile.
Artificial silk made from synthetic fibers like polyester or natural fibers including mercerized
The center plain of an area rug that is surrounded by the border and contains the central
medallion or other motifs.
A fine rug is a rug in excellent shape with no holes, tears, or stains and no previous repair
work. Since handmade rugs are very durable, most rugs are in fine condition.
Rugs without pile or knots. Flat weave rugs are made on a loom and threaded through the
warps. Kilims, Dhurries and the original Aubusson are good examples of flat woven rugs.
Carpets with pile flatten due to heavy traffic. Cleaning and vacuuming can restore the height
of the pile.
Traditional Greek rugs, hand-woven from sheep's wool. Flokati rugs come in different weights
from 1400 grams to 4000 grams. The higher the gram count, the more plush and more
expensive the rug will be.
The basic structural components of handmade rugs, which consist of warps and wefts.
Warp threads that extend beyond the end of the rug.
A small dioecious tropical American tree also called old fustic or dyer's mulberry. A yellow dye
is derived from its wood.
Gabbeh are fluffy long piled rugs with simple colorful patterns.
Ends of pile yarn per unit of length across the width of the carp
Patterns created with straight lines.
Stripes of color that embellish the main border and separate it from the field
Persian word for flower, it describes the popular ornaments found in Turkoman carpets.
This is an octagonal motif, usually elongated and divided into four.
A design consisting of all-over repeating naturalistic roses.
The henna flower used as a motif mainly in Persian rugs such as Farahan and Josaghan,
This motif could be used in all-over or medallion layout. Sometimes it is arranged in a
diamond format as seen in Joshaghan rugs.
Background color that accents the rug's design motif.
Rugs made in a manner similar to that of hand-tufted rugs, except that the pile is left
looped rather than cut. Canvas backing is spread on a frame and a hooking implement is
then used to pull the yarn through the fabric. Latex glue is then applied to the back of the rug
to hold the loops in place. Another layer of cloth is added to the back of the rug and the rug is
then finished by turning under the ends.
The most expensive and longest to make, hand-knotted rugs are traditionally made with wool
or silk. The weaver loops wool or silk around the warps one at a time, creating a thick pile.
Cotton yarn is then woven through the warps to hold them together. Generally the cotton
yarns are tied off to form a decorative fringe.
Rugs woven on a hand loom.
Rugs that are either hand-knotted or hand-tufted. More expensive than machine-made rugs.
Hand-tufted rugs are made much like hand-hooked rugs, except that the loops are sheared to
create a flat surface. Tufted rugs can be made with combinations of fibers, and offer a great
value. Hi-Lo Tufted Rugs feature a combination of cut and looped pile, yielding a three
Hard Twist/ Cut Pile
Practical type of cut-pile carpet that minimizes flattening with its durable stiffness. The yarns are twisted and set at a high temperature.
Process of using heat to treat twisted yarns to maintain their strength.
A motif consisting of a flower inside a diamond and curving leaves outside the diamond
which are parallel to each side. This motif is commonly used in the field of an all-over layout.
The leaves sometimes look similar to fish. Many versions of Herati pattern exist from geometric
to curvilinear and simple to complex. Also known as the "Fish Pattern".
Coats of arms and the symbols associated with them.
Rug made by pushing loops of yarn through a canvas backing. Hooked rugs are an affordable
alternative to authentic knotted rugs, because hooking is a very fast technique.
Any of various shrubs or herbs in the pea family with odd-pinnate leaves and usually red
or purple flowers. A yellow juice from the plant oxidixes to blue when exposed to air. Indigo
was chemically synthesized in 1880.
A rug made in India in Esfahan style.
Islimi Medallion- and- Corner
The field of this design is covered with a motif called islimi, which is based on arabesque forms
(intertwining leaves, stems, vines and blossoms). Often the islimi motif is used in conjunction
with the shah abbasi motif in which case the design could be called shah abbasi and islimi
medallion-and-corner; the shah abbasi motif can be part of the medallion and also be seen
in the field and the border.
The jufti knot can be seen in rugs of Khorasan, Iran. This knot can be either symmetrical or
asymmetrical. The knot is usually tied over four warps making the weaving process faster.
Rugs woven of natural plant fibers that were originally used as doormats. Jute is grown in
areas of southern Asia. The fibers are then stripped from their stalks and can be spun into
yarn or rope and woven. Jute rugs are woven with loop or flat construction, and have become
popular for use throughout the home. Jute yarns are strong and often used as warps in knotted
Some medallion centerpieces have two small floral extensions on the top and bottom called
pendants. Each pendant has two parts. Kalaleh is the Persian name for the part of the
pendant further away from the medallion.
Silk or mercerized cotton carpets from the Islamic region of India. Kashmir rugs are woven
with Persian knots and have coloration and ornate patterns unique to India.
Some medallion centerpieces have two small floral extensions on the top and bottom called pendants. Each pendant has two parts. Kalaleh is the Persian name for the part of the pendant closer to the medallion.
The most well known group of flat-woven rugs. No knots are used in creating kelims.
Simply, the weft strands are woven (passed) through the warp strands.
Pile-woven or knotted rugs are created by knots. The two predominant types of knots are
Asymmetrical and Symmetrical. Oriental rugs are made with two basic kinds of knots, Persian
Senneh and Turkish Ghiordes. Persian Senneh are complex asymmetrical knots. Turkish
hiordes are symmetrical knot. Both knots vary with different tribal and regional traditions.
Number of knots per square inch of rug
Knot density refers to the overall number of knots used in creation of a handmade rug.
The knotted carpet refers to a particular decorative and functional textile made by hand
on a horizontal or vertical loom using the techniwue of knotting. This weaving style involves
wrapping tufts of wool or pile around the warps. They wool or pile is then tied around each
individual warp strand to erect the pile at a 90 degree angle to the floor.
Fine wool taken from the belly of sheep.
Stylized calligraphic script used for decoration.
The four corner elements in a medallion and corner layout.
A Turko-Persian world meaning medallion-and-corner. Medallion-and-corner refers to a
special medallion layout with quartered medallions in four corners of the rug in addition to
the full medallion in the center.
An opaque to translucent blue, violet-blue or greenish-blue semiprecious gemstone composed
mainly of lazurite and calcite, sometimes used as a source of blue dye.
Emulsion of synthetic rubber or plastic, used in rug adhesives.
A design used in an all-over layout. Lattices consist of ogives (an arch or two connected,
or rectangles with usually some floral motif inside them. In classic Persian rugs, lattices are
curvilinear and consist of ogives. The new versions are more geometric and consist of
diamonds and hexagons.
The overall arrangement of motifs or objects woven into a rug.
Number of horizontal knots in a foot of rug. The greater the number of knots, the higher the
quality of the rug.
Structure that holds warp strands taut for weaving and knotting. Looms can be vertical,
horizontal, fixed or mobile.
Loop pile is a hard-wearing surface, designed to minimize tracking. Loop pile is the same
as cut pile before it is trimmed.
A design which appears on rugs in the paintings of Lorenzo Lotto, a sixteenth-century
Venetian painter. Rugs with this design were woven from the early sixteenth until eighteenth
century and are usually seen in Ushak rugs from Turkey. Typically, they have a red field
with all-over yellow branching lines or arabesque design and sometimes a Kufi border.
A diamond- like shape.
Brightness and sheen of the rug fibers or yarns.
Rugs woven on power-looms controlled by a computer. The computer controls which colors
are woven into the fabric and where. Machine-made rugs can be made quickly, and are
offered in materials including heat-set polypropylene, art silk and wool.
A Southwest Asian long lasting plant with small yellow flowers, spiraled leaves and a red root
The root od this plant was and in some places is an important source of red dye.
This attribute determines where a rug is actually made.
Steps taken to ensure hat a rug is aging gracefully such as vacuuming, rotation and
A light to dark green mineral used as a source of green dye.
Rugs woven in Egypt possibly beginning in the thirteenth century until the sixteenth
century with complex geometric designs and large medallions.
A black crystalline compound used in dyeing weaving yarns.
Master workshops are specialty workshops run by usually a well-known master designer/artist.
They pay attention to the artistic aspect of weaving rather than the commerical aspect.
Two of the well-known master designers of Iran are Seyrafian and Arabzadeh.
Large design in the middle of some oriental and European rug styles.
A special medallion layout with quartered medallions in four corners of the rug in addition
to the full medallion in the center.
An all-over pattern consisting of two or more flower blossoms connected by a diamond lattice.
Many rug borders consist of one wide band known as the main border, or simply the border.
One or many narrower bands on each side of the main border are known as the minor border.
Multiple rows of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal small boteh.
A design consisting of vertical stripes with equal width. Each stripe contains different or
sometimes the same motifs and is a different color from its neighboring stripes.
This design can be seen in Qum rugs.
Any single form or interrelated group of forms which make up part of the overall design
of a rug.
Multi-Level Loop Pile
Varied heights of yarn loops that create a three dimensional effect.
The direction which the pile of the rug faces.
Until the late nineteenth century only natural dyes were used for coloring weaving yarns.
Natural dyes include plant dyes, animal dyes and mineral dyes.
Rugs made of natural fibers that are usually ivory or neutral colored. Texture is the main
feature of these rugs.
A revival of ancient Greek and Roman styles in art and architecture in the 18th and 19th
centuries, which was characterized by order, symmetry and simplicity.
Rugs woven by sheepherders who mostly live in tents and migrate from the valleys to the
mountain pastures in the summer. These rugs are generally small because the rugs must
be finished in time for migration.
Strong synthetic fiber with good dyeing ability
Any of several earthy mineral oxidees of iron ocurring in yellow, brown, or red and used as
Considered to be the finest type of kilim rug, usually featuring ornate flower and leaf patterns.
A rug layout where the design is woven in one direction. Prayer and pictorial rugs fall into this
category of layout.
Out-of-date word for 'of the Eastern World', or the region of the world that was found by early
European explorers who circled Africa.
The way lines are used to form shapes on a rug. In the rug industry, pattern is divided into
the three categories of Curvilinear, Geometric, and Pictorial.
Small floral extensions at the top and bottom of the medallion (centerpiece) in a
Knot that is tied onto two warp strands, wrapped around one and looped behind the
A pattern portraying people and animals.
The material (fiber) used for weaving rugs. The main pile materials are wool,silk and
Height of the pile, measured by tenths of an inch from the top surface of the rug backing
to the top of the pile's surface.
Pile weave or knotted weave refers to the method of weaving used in most rugs. In this
technique the rug is woven by creation of knots.
Weight of pile yarn per square yard of the rug.
Cut pile rug in which the tuft ends blend together.
Number of yarns spun together to form a tuft of pile. Measurement of the yarn's thickness.
One tuft of pile.
Synthetic fiber most often used in staple spun yarns.
A petroleum-based synthetic material which is often heat set to guarantee vibrant color,
long lasting beauty, easy maintenance and enduring performance.
A loom operated by mechanical or electronic power.
Backing in a tufted carpet into which the tufts are inserted. The backing is then bonded
with latex on its back side to hold the tufts in place.
Programmed Handmade Rugs
Programmed or continuity rugs are handmade pile rugs of popular classic Persian or other
traditional designs, which are woven in a variety of shapes, color combinations and sizes
in workshops. From a construction point opf view, programmed rugs are of the same quality
as one-of-a-kind rugs and they require the same amount of hard work and time to weave.
They are simply a response to a modern lifestyle.
Round motif with four symmetrical lobes.
Ability of carpet pile or cushion to recover original thickness after being subjected to
compressive forces or crushing under traffic.
Any of several plants of the Rheum family, which have edible long, green or reddish,
acidic leafstalks. Yellow to copper-red dyes are derived from the leaves and used in rugs
of China and India.
Motif that looks like a round flower.
A term used to describe any kind of material placed under carpet to provide softness and
adequate support when it is walked upon. These rug pads provides a softer feel underfoot.
It usually provides added acoustical benefits and longer wear life for the carpet. Also referred
to as "cushion" or "underlay"
Long, narrow rug used primarily for hallways and stairways. Most runners are between 2.5 to
3 feet wide and 6 to 20 feet long and in some cases even longer.
A yellow dye is produced from the orange flowers of safflower. This dye may have been used
in some early rugs of China, India and Tibet.
A plant with purple or white flowers with orange stigmas. Saffron was used to dye some early
rugs in China, India and the Balkans
The name given to French piled carpets made until 1890 that look similar to Persian Kermans.
These rugs were more foot friendly than their cousin the Aubusson and had an impressionist
quality many find very appealing. This rug is the model for many of today's Indian and Persian
Beautiful factory woven carpets from central Iran and Iranian Azerbaijan, manufactured for
Cut pile rugs made with a dense cut pile and heavy yarns. Similar to shag rug, but with shorter
In tufted carpet, an additional backing is bonded onto the primary backing with latex.
Rugs between 25 to 60 years old.
Combing process that removes shorter fibers, resulting in a more lustrous looking yarn.
For good tuft definition, yarns are twisted and then 'set' with heat to hold the twist's shape.
Contemporary rug style with long, typically synthetic, pile.
Shah Abbasi Medallion-and-Corner
Shah Abbasi Medallion-and-Corner
A design consisting of a circular or diamond-shape medallion filled with Shah Abbasi motifs
with Shah Abbasi pendants. If there are corners, then the corners will also be filled with Shah
Abbasi and islimi motifs. The field also contains Shah Abbasi and islimi motifs .
Shah Abbasi Motif
A group of palmettes that can be seen in all-over and medallion layouts as well as in borders.
This motif is frequently seen in rugs of Kashan , Esfahan, Mashad, Nain and in rugs of
countries which copy Persian styles such as India, China and Pakistan.
Design that features feather and lotus motifs. Popular pattern in many modern Persian rugs
A carpet having a high luster, usually produced by a special chemical washing.
Sheikh Safi Medallion-and-Corner
Sheikh Safi medallion-and-corner copes the dome of Sheikh Safi's shrine located in the city of
Ardabil in northwest of Iran. The medallion is surrounded by 16 leaf-lke pendants; two lamps
are also connected to the medallion, one to the top and one to the bottom. The corners look
very similar to the medallion itself. This is also the design of the two famous Ardabil carpets
now located in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Los Angeles County museum.
Expensive fiber that comes from the cocoon of silkworms.
Plant of the genus Agave that yields a fiber often used for making natural rope. The name
sisal is used for both the plant and for the fiber. Sometimes referred to as hemp, sisal is not
actually hemp but a fiber that resembles it. Sisal rugs are natural rugs, woven from sisal fibers.
A group of flat-woven rugs where no knots are used in the weave.
Corner designs in the field of a rug, often arc shaped
Complex reversible rugs that are woven with a weft-wrapping technique. Extra wefts of dyed
wool are added to create a pattern, like a brocade.
Interlacing pattern resembling straps.
Build-up of electric charge when a person walks over a carpet. Occurs with both natural and
synthetic fibers, and is effected by humidity.
Style could be defined as the way different motifs, colors and patterns give character to a rug.
The symmetrical knot is used in Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran by Turkish and Kurdish tribes.
It is also used in some European rugs. To form this knot, yarn is passed over two neighboring
warp strands. Each end of the yarn is then wrapped behind one warp and brought back to the
surface in the middle of the two warps.
Dyes made chemically beginning I the mid-nineteenth century for dyeing weaving yarns
used in rugs.
In rug terminology tapestry refers to a weft face weave with complicated designs.
Process used to antique the colors of the rug.
Textured Loop Pile
With loops of differing pile height, textured loop has a unique sculptured look. Like level loop
pile, this hard wearing texture minimizes tracking.
Distinctive knotting technique that originated in Tibet and has now spread to other regions.
A rod is placed in front of the warp. A single strand of yarn is then wrapped around two warps
and then around the rod. When the row is finished, the rod is removed and the resulting loops
are cut, creating the pile.
Cut pile rugs where some of the loops of yarn are left uncut. This finishing style is desirable
since it minimizes tracking and flattening effects.
Two or more tones of the same color in a rug. This look is achieved either by mixing yarns
of different tones or by using the same color of yarn in a rug with both cut and looped pile.
The Persian name for medallio, the centerpiece in a medallion layout.
Style name that refers to the characteristic designs of the European and Oriental/Persian
schools of weaving. Modern traditional rugs replicate the classic patterns, colors, and styles
of antique rugs
Broad style that falls between traditional European and Oriental rug designs and new
contemporary styles. Floral and botanical patterns are good examples of rugs in this category.
Style of rug woven by North American or Middle Eastern tribal peoples, or woven in the
traditional styles or patterns of these groups.
Technique of punching tufts of wool through the base fabric. Used to create inexpensive
versionse of hand-knotted rugs.
Octagonal motif with eight points and another small octagon in the center of the gul.
Symmetrical knot tied around two adjacent warp threads, each of which are encircled by
the strand of wool; the ends of the woolen strand reappear between these two warp threads.
The weft is then compressed against the row of knots with a heavy metal comb and a new
row of knots is started. After the rug has been completely woven, the loops of wool are then
clipped, creating the pile of the rug
A widely cultivated tropical plant of India with yellow flowers and an aromatic root. It is used
as a yellow dye.
Winding of the yarn around itself to create a neat, well-defined strand.
Cut-pile with a velvety surface.
Rug featuring a motif of interlocking birds.
Vertical strands of weave that extend through the entire length of the rug. The warps are the
yarns onto which the knots are tied and the wefts are woven.
Chemical treatment of wool rugs that tones down the colors and gives the rug a soft texture.
Sometimes imitates the effects of aging. Some purists believe that rugs should be allowed to
age without the wash.
The technique used in weaving. There are two major weaving techniques, pile weave and
Strands of yarn that run across the width of the rug between warp threads. The weft threads
hold the pile knots in place.
A European plant with long spikes of small, yellowish-green flowers. A yellow dye is derived
from its stalks.
Machine-loomed carpets with limited color palettes. Modern Wilton rugs were the first type to
be made on a computerized machine. Wilton cross-weaving offers great flexibility in color
placement and design.
Fiber acquired from the hair of sheep, goats and a selection of other domesticated animals,
including alpacas. Wool is the most frequently used pile material in handmade rugs.
Wool sisal-look rugs are popular alternatives to real sisal (coir and seagrass).
Before wool is spun into yarn, it is combed, then worsted to improve its quality by
leaving only the longer pieces of fiber for final spinning. It is used for more intricate
Carpet made on a weaving loom where backing threads and pile are woven at the same time,
creating strong anchors for the tufts. Axminster and Wilton are both well known woven
carpets, offering a wider range of patterns.
A design consisting of all-over repeating vases with floral arrangements. An example of this
design can be seen in Qum rugs.